Glossary - What does that word mean?

[Please note: Many ingredients fall into several categories.]

Anti-microbial: Kills germs (including certain yeast, fungus and bacteria).
Emollient: Fatty substances with lubricating action that make hair feel softer and more pliable. Also has a hydrating effect by reducing moisture evaporation from the skin and hair surfaces. Many moisturizers are also emollients.
Emulsifier: Holds the oil-based and water-based ingredients together in a cosmetic formulation.
Fixative: Reduces the tendency of an odor or flavor to vaporize, making it last longer. Extremely small amounts are used.
Humectant: Increases moisture content.
Preservative: Added to cosmetics to maintain product integrity, prevent microbial growth (yeast, fungus, bacteria), and extend shelf life. Miniscule amounts are used.
Solvent: A liquid that can dissolve one or more substances.
Stabilizer: A substance added to a product to give it body and to maintain a desired texture. Extremely small amounts are used.
Surfactants: “Surface active agents” that emulsify oils and hold dirt in suspension so that it can be rinsed away with water. Also wetting agents that lower the surface tension of water, permitting it to spread out and penetrate more easily. Soap and detergents are surfactants.
Thickener: Provides “body” to a product, increases stability and makes application easier. Some act as carriers or releasers for active ingredients.

Glossary - Plant and flower extracts

Algae: Strengthening; Leaves soft gleam
Aloe Vera: Soothing emollient
Althea: Soothing emollient
Anori: Nourishing blue-green algae that restores and retains moisture
Asafetida: Fixative
Bladderwrack: Soothing
Blue Orchid: Revitalize and tones skin
Buckthorn: Refreshes, restores
Burdock: Purifier, anti-inflammatory
Calendula: Freshener, stimulant, softener, brightener
Chamomile: Calming anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial (germ fighting)
Chaparral: Anti-oxidant, anti-septic, anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant
Comfrey: Anti-inflammatory, emollient, astringent
Crane’s bill: Astringent, promotes healing
Cucumber: Skin softener, astringent also soothes itching. Composed mainly of water, protein, lipids, minerals and vitamin C, it has emollient and moisturizing properties.
Goldenseal: Antiseptic, restorative
Hops: Softener, anti-microbial
Horseradish: Very nourishing: contains Vitamin C and minerals; rebuilds tissues, astringent
Horsetail: Texturizer, elasticizer, astringent
Irish Moss & Aonori: Soothing emulsifier and stabilizer; prevents product flaking
Juniper berry: Anti-septic, astringent
Katira: Weightless, oil-free moisturizer; enhances control and elasticity
Matricaria: Type of chamomile, soothing emollient
Nettle: Restorative; helps stimulate hair growth
Neutral henna: Conditioner, hair thickener, shine enhancer, anti-fungal
Quassia: Makes alcohol in cosmetics undrinkable
Rosemary: Purifying, toning, anti-microbial
Sage: Purifying, toning, astringent, anti-microbial
Tahitian Gardenia: Soothes & hydrates
Thyme: Antimicrobial; purifying, antiseptic; anti-seborrhea – regulates sebum hypersecretion and treatment of related disorders.
Vanilla: Source of catechins (also known as polyphenols), which exhibit antioxidant activity and serve as anti-inflammatory agents
Walnut: Anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant
Witch hazel: Astringent, refresher

Glossary Oils, in a Nutshell

Plant oils have been used for their healing properties for thousands of years dating back as far as ancient Egypt. Plant oils are divided into three basic types:

Essential Oils
With their tiny molecules, these potent yet delicate oils penetrate deeply into the scalp and the cortex (middle layer) of the hair shaft. Extremely concentrated, pure essential oils are found in the bark, stalks, leaves, petals, roots, seeds and resins of certain aromatic plants and flowers. Large quantities of plant material are required to produce a tiny amount of essential oil.
Bourbon Geranium Oil: Helps balance dry sensitive skin and hair, adding a healthy glow. Has a brisk “green” aroma.
Lavender Oil: Has a fresh floral aroma and a dual ability to stimulate and relax the scalp. Restores damaged hair, adding moisture and pliability. Clarifies scalp and helps regulate oil secretion.
Lemon Oil: Anti-septic, astringent, bactericidal; contains Vitamin C.
Monoi Oil: Blend of Tahitian gardenia and coconut oil; instantly hydrates hair and provides long-lasting benefits for the scalp by creating a barrier that traps moisture.
Peppermint Oil: Anti-inflammatory, astringent. Also aroma-therapeutic.
Tea Tree Oil: Anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, fungicidal.
Thyme Oil: Essential oil; soothing, anti-inflammatory. Antimicrobial; purifying, antiseptic; anti-seborrhea – regulates sebum hypersecretion and treatment of related disorders.
Ylang-Ylang Oil: Has a relaxing natural scent. Strengthens hair, controls split ends, calms scalp irritation, normalizes oil production, and promotes growth.

Glossary - Carrier Oils
Extracted from nuts, seeds and other parts of the plant, these fatty substances nourish, lubricate and smooth the hair cuticle. Used in oil blends, they allow potent essential oils to spread evenly and avoid irritating tender scalps.
Almond oil: Helps relieve irritation, inflammation and itching, and softens dry skin.
Avocado Oil: Nourishes, hydrates; contains Vitamins A and E.
Coconut Oil: Moisturizing; serves as a protective layer, helping to retain the moisture in your skin. It also acts as a mild oil suitable for those with inflamed and irritated skin, and those with skin sensitivities.
English Walnut Oil: Lubricates; aids in bacteria prevention.
Grape Seed Oil: Useful for skin types that do not absorb oils too well, does not leave a greasy feeling. Wonderful for those with skin sensitivities because of its natural non-allergenic properties.
Jojoba Oil: Similar in composition to the oil (sebum) of the scalp, it soothes, nourishes and penetrates the scalp. Works as a natural preservative for the other oils in the rejuvenating blend.
Kukui Oil: High penetrability; soothing properties. Contains very high levels of the essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic. Readily absorbed into the skin, providing tissues the essential elements that it needs and is particularly good for dry skin, psoriasis, acne and eczema.
Olive Oil: Encourages moisture retention while it soothes.
Peanut Oil: Hydrates and lubricates.
Rice Bran Oil: Contains three different kinds of natural antioxidants -- namely Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, and Oryzanol. The Oryzanol can impede the progress of melanin pigmentation by restraining the eryhema activity of tyrosinase as it intercepts the ultraviolet rays at the hair and skin's surface and hinders its (ultraviolet rays) transmission.
Safflower Seed Oil: Moisturizing, deeply soothing oil with an exceptionally high amount of Oleic acids.
Sesame Oil: Soothes irritation and dryness.
Soybean Oil: High in natural source lecithin, sterolins, and Vitamin E; easily absorbed and leaves a smooth sensation.
Sweet Almond Oil: Softens and helps relieve irritation, inflammation and itching.
Walnut Oil: Lubricates the hair shaft and prevents the growth of bacteria.

Aromatherapy Oils
Prized for their mood-enhancing scents, they include Gardenia Oil, which promotes a feeling of well-being, seductive Italian White Truffle Oil, and opulent Amber Oil with healing and calming properties.

Glossary - Moisturizers, Nutrients, Proteins and Shine Enhancers

Allantoin: Soothes, helps heal wounds, and stimulates growth of healthy tissues
Amodimethicone Cocomidonium: Silicone with softening properties
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein: Anti-static; hair and/or skin conditioner. Increases hair’s elasticity and tensile strength thereby boosting overall health of hair.
DL Dimethicone: Organic compound that shines and protects
Honey: Natural humectant; nourishing, bleaching, astringent and antiseptic
Hydrolyzed Keratin: Processed, simulated form of the natural keratin (protein) found in hair
Hydrolyzed Soy Protein: Protein from the soybean. Increases hair’s elasticity and tensile strength thereby boosting overall health of hair.
L-Amino Acids: Repair and strengthen hair on a cellular level; moisturizing, strengthening structure and color-protect. Modeled after the constituent amino acids of protein in Cell Membrane Complex (CMC)
Panthenol: Vitamin B5; penetrating moisturizer, anti-inflammatory, softener; promotes health of hair and skin
Peptides: Lipoproteins; penetrate skin’s surface to help rebuild collagen, tightening and strengthening skin’s integral texture and elasticity.
Petrolatum: Softens and smoothes skin; a form of petroleum that it is purified, nontoxic and easy to wash out
Phytantroil: Vitamin B5 catalyst
Shea Butter: A natural fat obtained from the seeds of the Shea tree; alleviates skin dryness, offers sun protection and high skin penetration
Hydrolyzed Silk Protein: Anti-static; hair and/or skin conditioner. Increases hair’s elasticity and tensile strength thereby boosting overall health of hair.
Sodium PCA: High-performance humectant due to moisture-binding abilities; conditioning and color-protecting. PCA is derived from L-Glutamic acid.
Squalene: Moisturizer and lubricant derived from plant sources; similar to component found in human sebum
Stearalkonium chloride: Hair detangler; shine enhancer
Yeast: Radiant moisturizer, softener, and elasticizer (Note: The form of yeast used by PHILIP B® is derived from plant materials and is not irritating - except in the rare case of allergy.)

Glossary - Emollients and Emulsifiers

Acetylated Lanolin Alcohol: Emollient, emulsifier (helps liquid ingredients, like oil and water, to mix)
AMP: Emulsifier
Butyl Stearate: Synthetic binder and conditioner
Carbomer: Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Cetyl Alcohol: Emollient and emulsion stabilizer.
Cetearyl Alcohol: Emulsifier; stabilizes essential oils in water
Cholesterol: Emulsifier, emollient, moisturizer
Glyceryl Polymethacrylate: Emollient, humectant, anti-static agent
Emulsifying Wax: Mixture of fatty alcohols
Glyceryl Stearate: Emulsifier, solvent, humectant, lubricant derived from soy oil
Glycol Stearate: Emulsifier, cleansing agent, stabilizer, emollient
Isopropyl Myristate: Emollient, moisturizer and softener derived from coconut oil
Lanolin Alcohol: Emollient, emulsifier
Lanolin Oil: Emollient, emulsifier
Mineral Oil: Natural emollient; protective barrier
Myristyl Alcohol: Emollient that gives a smooth feel
Nanoxynol 10: Emulsifier, surfactant
Peg-100 Stearate: Emulsifier
Polyquatrenium-10: Conditioning agent and emulsifier made from plant fibers
Polysorbate 20: Emulsifier, stabilizes essential oils in water
Propylene Glycol: Colorless solvent for anti-oxidants and preservative; humectant. Mineral derivative.
PVP: Clarifier, softener; helps product to adhere
Sorbitan Oleate: Mild emulsifier derived from sugar
Stearamide Mea-stearate: Emulsifier
Triethanolamine: Emulsifier, pH adjuster

Glossary - Cleansing Agents and Surfactants

Ammonium Laureth Sulfate: A compound that breaks up and holds oils and soil so they can be easily removed from skin and hair
Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate: Mild cleansing agent and surfactant with emulsifying capabilities, derived from natural alcohols in coconuts
Avocadamide DEA and Avocado Oil: Mixture of fatty acids derived from avocados; used as a solvent, emulsifier, detergent and humectant with softening properties
Cetrimonium Bromide: Cleansing agent, anti-septic, disinfectant
Cocamidopropyl B Betaine: Germicidal; enhances cleansing agent; derived from coconut oil
Cocamide DEA: Enhances action of other cleansing agents; thickener derived from fatty acid of coconut oil
DEA (Diethanolamine): Fatty acids from soybeans or coconut oils used as solvent, emulsifier, humectant, detergent
Decyl Glucoside: Mild cleansing agent; vegetable derived.
Dimethicone, Laureth-4 and Laureth-23: Surfactant with silicone
Guar Hydrozyproplytrimonium Chloride: Germicidal surfactant, preservative
Lauramine Oxide: Cleansing agent, conditioner
Palm Kernelamide DEA: Emulsifying, germicidal surfactant derived from natural palm kernel oil
Quaternium 60: Anti-microbial surfactant active against bacteria but not yeast; derived from coconut oil
Sodium Laureth Sulfate: Versatile cleansing agent and surfactant derived from natural coconut alcohols
Soyamidoproplakonium Chloride: Surfactant, germicide, anti-septic
Soyamidoproply Betaine: Germicidal surfactant, emulsifier; derived from soybean oil and beets

Glossary – Preservatives*, Thickeners, Solvents, Stabilizers* and Fixatives

Acetamide mea: Solvent and stabilizer
Alcohol: Anti-septic, solvent
Benzophenone-4: Stabilizer, fixative, preservative
BHT: Preservative with anti-oxidant properties
Butyl Ester of PUM/MA Copolymer: Thickener
Butylene Glycol: Solvent with anti-microbial action; enhances preservatives
Citric Acid: Adjusts pH, astringent, preservative derived from citrus fruit
Copal: Hair fixative, anti-static agent, controls film formation, thickener
FD&C Yellow #5: FDA-approved coloring
Lauramide DEA: Foam stabilizer, thickener
Methylchloroisothiazolinone: Preservative
Methylparaben: Low-sensitizing preservative used to combat bacteria and molds
Methylsothiazolinone: Preservative
Ozokerite: Natural wax; stabilizer
Phenoxyethanol: Low-sensitizing preservative with fungicidal, bactericidal, and germicidal properties; solvent stabilizer
Sea Salt: Nourishes with minerals; texturizer.
SDA Alcohol 40 B, 190 proof: Anti-septic; solvent with strong grease- dissolving abilities
Sodium Chloride: Preservative, astringent, antiseptic; (also known as table salt)
Sodium Hydrozymethylglycinate: Preservative
Tallowtrimonium Chloride: Preservative
Tetrasodium EDTA: A salt that reduces minerals, and trace metals, in a compound; preservative

Glossary - Other useful ingredients

Apple Cider Vinegar: Astringent; removes excess oil and dissolves shampoo residue; has low pH that seals the hair cuticle; adds sheen and shine to hair and revives dull strands; some believe it has healing properties
Chlorophy-10: Natural coloring that soothes and heals skin
Coal Tar 0.525%: Thick liquid or semi-solid; rids scalp of loose skin cells that have started to flake
Deionized Water: Form of purification - removing ions, electrically charged atoms that soften water and remove mineral content
Isodedecane: Fragrance found naturally in lemon and lime oils; derived from amino acids
Palmitoyl oligopeptide: A second sequence of collagen-stimulating peptides.
Polyquaterium-39: Cellulose polymer; linked chain of molecules that form a slight film on the hair and help to straighten it temporarily; has a sustained release mechanism; gives hair better feel and condition
Retinol: The name for the entire vitamin A molecule; a cell-communicating ingredient and antioxidant. Skin cells have a receptor site that is very accepting of retinoic acid, which is a component of retinol. This relationship between retinoic acid and skin cells allows a type of communication in which the cell is told to function normally (that is, not like a damaged or older cell), and it can, to some extent, conform to that request. Retinol helps skin cells create better, healthier skin cells and increase the amount of skin-support substances. Helps improve skin structure
Tocopherol: Vitamin E; derived from wheat germ and/or vegetable oils; heals, rejuvenates, softens, soothes and protects.
Zinc Omadine: Anti-bactericide, fungicide; zinc is a trace element found in over 70 metal enzymes; packs down loose skin cells to prevent immediate loosening and falling